The 50 media outlets analyzed belong to 26 communication groups or companies. Among them, all own more than one type of media outlet and 16 also have other business in the sector, such as cinema production, book publishing, marketing agencies, cable TV programming, among others. Besides that, 21 of the groups or their shareholders have activities in other economic sectors such as education, financial services, real state, agriculture, energy, transportation, infrastructure and health. There are also owners who are politicians or religious leaders.
Five groups or their individual owners concentrate more than half of the outlets: 9 belong to Grupo Globo, 5 to Grupo Bandeirantes, 5 to the Macedo family (taking into account Grupo Record and IURD’s outlets, both belonging to the same owner), 4 to the regional-scale Grupo RBS and 3 to Grupo Folha. Other groups appear on the list with two outlets each: Grupo OESP, Grupo Abril Group and Editorial Sempre Editora/SADA Group. The remaining groups have only one outlet on the list. They are: Sílvio Santos Group, Jovem Pan Group, Jaime Câmara Group, Diários Associados, Três Communication Group, Almicare Dallevo & Marcelo de Carvalho Group, Ongoing/Ejesa, BBC – British Broadcasting Corporation, EBC – Empresa Brasil de Comunicação, Publisher Brasil, Empiricus Consulting, Alfa Group, Mix Communication/Objetivo Group, Igreja Renascer em Cristo, Igreja Adventista do Sétimo Dia, Igreja Católica/Rede Católica de Rádio and INBRAC – Instituto Brasileiro de Comunicação Cristã.
The national communication groups listed by MOM-Brasil also have affiliation relations with regional media groups. In other words, the high ratings reached by most of the outlets, mainly the TV, radio, and in a lesser amount, the online news portals, depend on contracts and partnerships established with regional groups, that are also listed on the database.
Another point to be highlighted is that most of the groups belong to families that transfer their businesses – and their public concessions, in the case of Radio and TV – to the next generations. Among them, there are some billionaires listed by Forbes Magazine (2017), such as Roberto Irineu Marinho, José Roberto Marinho and João Roberto Marinho (Grupo Globo), Aloysio de Andrade Faria (Conglomerado Alfa) and also Carlos Sanchez and Lírio Parisotto (Grupo NC, which has a partnership with Grupo RBS). Other media owners have been on the list, like the siblings Victor Civita Neto, Giancarlo Franceso Civita and Roberta Anamaria Civita (Grupo Abril), Edir Macedo (Grupo Record and IURD) and Sílvio Santos (Grupo Silvio Santos). Macedo was the only one to object the information, claiming that the magazine had mistaken his personal properties with his church’s.
We must also highlight the politicians who are media owners, including radio and TV stations despite the Brazilian legislation’s prohibition. These politicians own stations affiliated to the national networks. In the main groups, the only owner-politician is Vittorio Medioli, the mayor of Betim, MG, by PHS. Owner of the newspapers O Tempo and Super Notícia, Medioli has as his main business the SADA Group, with companies in the sectors of transportation, storage, logistics, energy, among others.
By and large, the country’s mass media is controlled by an economic elite of white men.
Among founders of recently established media companies there is only one woman, Sônia Hernandes, who started Igreja Renascer em Cristo with her husband, Estevam Hernandes. Among founders of media outlets, there are three women: again Sônia Hernandes (Rede Gospel), Márcia Poole (BBC Brasil) and the strategy director Carla Sá, who founded the iG portal alongside businessman and advertiser Nizan Guanaes, entrepreneur Jorge Paulo Lemann, journalist Matinas Suzuki Jr. and computer scientist Demi Getschko. Among CEOs, there are only six women controlling 8 out of the 50 outlets. As editors-in-chief, there are 8 women responsible for 8 outlets.
Among the outlet’s controlling partners, the gap remains: owners with considerable number of shares and important positions include Bishop Sônia Hernandes; the daughters of patriarchs who had no sons (two of the five Silvio Santos daughters, owner of SBT, and the two daughtes of Vittorio Medioli, of Grupo SADA); Isabel Rocha dos Santos, mother of Nuno Vasconcellos, who transferred his shares in an attempt to tackle his company ongoing financial problems; and Roberta Anamaria Civita (vice president of Fundação Civita), who owns one third of the Abril holding’s shares alongside her two brothers, who occupy higher positions in the group, Giancarlo Civita (President of the Administration Council and of Abril Media) and Victor Civita Neto (member of the Administration Council, president of Editora Abril’s Editorial Council and President or Fundação Victor Civita).